Glossary of Terms

Absorption
Process in which digested food is absorbed by the lower part of the small intestine into the bloodstream

Adipose
Fatty; having to do with fat
Anastomosis
Surgical connection between two structures

Bariatric
Having to do with weight or weight loss

Body Mass Index (BMI)
Method of figuring out the degree of excess weight, based on weight and height.

Cardiovascular
Having to do with the heart and blood vessels

Clinically Severe Obesity
Body Mass Index of 40 or more, which is roughly equal to 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight; a weight level that is life-threatening. Also known as morbid obesity.
Co-Morbid
Illnesses (i.e., arthritis, hypertension) or disabling conditions related to severe obesity or obesity-related health conditions

Colon
Large intestine beginning at the end of the small intestine and ending at the rectum

Contraindications
Any symptom or situation that is inappropriate for an otherwise recommended treatment (i.e., alcoholism, drug dependency, severe depression, sociopathic [antisocial] personality disorder)

Criteria
Defines what is right for surgery

Digestion
Process in which food is broken down by the stomach and upper small intestine into usable forms

Dilation
Process of enlarging or further opening a passage or anastomosis

Disease
Process that is a hazard to health and/or longevity

Dumping Syndrome
Uncomfortable feeling of nausea, lightheadedness, upset stomach, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, related to ingestion of sweets, high-calorie liquids, or dairy products, or high-fat/fried foods

Duodenum
First 12 inches of small intestine immediately below the stomach. Bile and pancreatic fluids flow into the duodenum through ducts from the liver and pancreas.

Gastric
Having to do with the stomach

Gastric Bypass Surgery
Operation designed to make a portion of the stomach nonfunctioning and to reroute the small intestine

Gastrointestinal
Having to do with the stomach or intestine

Genetic
Having to do with inherited physical characteristics

Hernia
A weakness in the abdominal wall that results in a detectable bulge

Herniation
Process in which a hernia is formed

Hypertension
High blood pressure

Ileum
The 10 feet of small intestine that handle absorption

Jejunum
The 10 feet of small intestine that handle digestion

Kilogram
Measure of weight equal to 2.2 pounds

Laparoscopy
Method that allows a doctor to see and treat intra-abdominal problems with long fiber-optic instruments

Morbid
Having to do with disease, illness, and a higher risk of death

Morbid Obesity
Body Mass Index of 40 or more, which is roughly equal to 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight; a weight level that is life-threatening

Mortality
Having to do with death

Multidisciplinary Bariatric Program
Team approach to testing and treatment of clinically severe obesity; includes surgical, internal medicine, nutrition, psychiatric, and exercise physiology, assessment, and treatment

NIH
National Institutes of Health

NIH Surgical Criteria
The National Institutes of Health has established minimum requirements for deciding whether bariatric surgery is the right treatment option:
100 pounds or more above ideal body weight or a BMI of 40 or greater3
BMI of 35 or greater with one or more obesity-related health condition3

Obesity
Having to do with excessive weight or adipose tissue

Obstructions
Narrowing of an anastomosis or a part of the gastrointestinal tract that slows down the normal passage of food or waste

Psychotherapy
Testing and treatment of mentally related disorders

Pulmonary
Having to do with the lungs

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
A surgical method of reconnecting the stomach and upper small intestines in roughly a Y shape

Staples
Surgically sterile devices for connecting tissue; usually they are permanent and made of stainless steel or titanium

Strictures
Narrowing of anastomosis or a section of intestine; often related to scarring or ulcers

Therapy
Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes
A disorder of glucose and insulin metabolism